Validation of Online Fear of Missing Out (ON-FoMO) Scale in Indonesian Version

Rizal Kurniawan(1*), Rahayu Hardianti Utami(2),

(1) Universitas Negeri Padang
(2) Universitas Negeri Padang
(*) Corresponding Author


The main objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the online fear of missing out (ON-FoMO) scale in the Indonesian version. This research consists of two stages. In the first stage, this study also examines the dimensional structure of the ON-FoMO scale. A total of 327 respondents were involved in this process. The analysis used is exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In the second stage, this study was conducted to test the validity of the ON-FoMO scale. This test was carried out by calculating the correlation of the ON-FoMO scale with the fear of missing out (FoMO) scale and the big five inventory personality. This process involved as many as 245 respondents. This study indicates that the scale dimensions formed from the EFA testing process are the same as the dimensions of the original scale, namely four dimensions: anxiety, need to belong, addiction, and need for popularity. The anxiety dimension has contributed to the most significant variance value, 17.85%. The correlation of the four dimensions of ON-FoMO ranged from  r = .41 to r = .21. The results of the convergent validity test showed that the ON-FoMO scale was significantly correlated with the FoMO scale, neuroticism personality type, and openness personality type. Overall, the ON-FoMO scale has good validity. The correlation between ON-FoMO and the openess personality types is further discussed.


Online fear of missing out; fear of Missing Out; FoMO; ON-FoMO; big five; openess; psychometrics.


Abel, J. P., Buff, C. L., & Burr, S. A. (2016). Social media and the fear of missing out: Scale development and assessment. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 14(1), 33–44.

Adriansyah, M. A., Munawarah, R., Aini, N., Purwati, P., & Muhliansyah. (2017). Pendekatan transpersonal sebagai tindakan preventif “Domino effect” dari gejala FoMO (fear of missing out) pada remaja milenial. Psikostudia: Jurnal Psikologi, 6(1), 33–40.

Adriansyah, M. A., Saputri, A., Lawolo, A. N., & Arsha, J. S. (2018). Vipassana sebagai upaya preventif bagi penderita fear of missing out (FoMO). Psikostudia: Jurnal Psikologi, 7(1), 50–59.

Akbar, R. S., Aulya, A., Apsari, A., & Sofia, L. (2018). Ketakutan akan kehilangan momen (FoMO) pada remaja Kota Samarinda. Psikostudia: Jurnal Psikologi, 7(2), 38–47.

Al-Menayes, J. (2016). The fear of missing out scale: Validation of the Arabic version and correlation with social media addiction. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(2), 41–46.

Alt, D. (2015). College students’ academic motivation, media engagement and fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 111–119.

Barry, C. T., McDougall, K. H., Anderson, A. C., Perkins, M. D., Lee-Rowland, L. M., Bender, I., & Charles, N. E. (2019). ‘Check Your Selfie before You Wreck Your Selfie’: Personality ratings of Instagram users as a function of self-image posts. Journal of Research in Personality, 82, 103843.

Bernaards, C. A., & Jennrich, R. I. (2005). Gradient projection algorithms and software for arbitrary rotation criteria in factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65(5), 676–696.

Blackwell, D., Leaman, C., Tramposch, R., Osborne, C., & Liss, M. (2017). Extraversion, neuroticism, attachment style and fear of missing out as predictors of social media use and addiction. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 69–72.

Can, G., & Satici, S. A. (2019). Adaptation of fear of missing out scale (FoMOs): Turkish version validity and reliability study. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 32(1), 3.

Casale, S., & Fioravanti, G. (2020). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the fear of missing out scale in emerging adults and adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 102, 106179.

Chen, J. V., Widjaja, A. E., & Yen, D. C. (2015). Need for affiliation, need for popularity, self-esteem, and the moderating effect of big five personality traits affecting individuals’ self-disclosure on facebook. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 31(11), 815–831.

Christina, R., Yuniardi, M. S., & Prabowo, A. (2019). Hubungan tingkat neurotisme dengan fear of missing out (FoMO) pada remaja pengguna aktif media sosial. Indigenous: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, 4(2), 105–117.

Fathadhika, S., & Afriani. (2018). Social media engagement sebagai mediator antara fear of missing out dengan kecanduan media pada remaja. JPSP: Jurnal Psikologi Sains Dan Profesi, 2(3), 208–215.

Field, A., Miles, J., & Field, Z. (2012). Discovering Statistics Using R. Sage.

Fioravanti, G., Casale, S., Benucci, S. B., Prostamo, A., Falone, A., Ricca, V., & Rotella, F. (2021). Fear of missing out and social networking sites use and abuse: A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 122, 106839.

Furr, R. Michael., & Bacharach, Verne. R. (2014). Psychometrics: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Sage.

Hadlington, L., & Scase, M. O. (2018). End-user frustrations and failures in digital technology: Exploring the role of fear of missing out, internet addiction and personality. Heliyon, 4(11), e00872.

Harel, F. E. J. (2021). Hmisc: Harrel Miscellaneous.

Hidayati, N., Syaf, A., & Hartati, R. (2021). Fear of missing out ditinjau dari big five personality. Psychopolytan: Jurnal Psikologi, 4(2), 77–83.

Holte, A. J., & Ferraro, F. R. (2020). Anxious, bored, and (maybe) missing out: Evaluation of anxiety attachment, boredom proneness, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Computers in Human Behavior, 112.

InternetWorldStats. (2021). Asia Internet Stats by Country and Population Statistics.

Kaloeti, D. V. S., Kurnia S, A., & Tahamata, V. M. (2021). Validation and psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of the Fear of Missing Out Scale in adolescents. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 34(1), 15.

Liu, D., & Campbell, W. K. (2017). The big five personality traits, big two metatraits and social media: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 70, 229–240.

Ma, J., Wang, C., & Ye, Y. (2021). Development and validation of fear of missing out scale among Chinese college students. Current Psychology.

Moore, K., & Craciun, G. (2021). Fear of missing out and personality as predictors of social networking sites usage: The Instagram case. Psychological Reports, 124(4), 1761–1787.

Pratiwi, F., Susilo, M. N. I. B., & Amelia, C. R. T. (2022). Fear of missing out pada remaja di masa pandemi Covid-19. PHILANTHROPY: Journal of Psychology, 6(1), 61.

Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841–1848.

R Core Team. (2022). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Rahardjo, W., & Mulyani, I. (2020). Instagram addiction in teenagers: The role of type D personality, self-esteem, and fear of missing out. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 5(1), 29–44.

Ramdhani, N. (2012). Adaptasi bahasa dan budaya inventori big five. Jurnal Psikologi, 39(2), 189–207.

Revelle, W. (2022). psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research. Northwestern University.

Riordan, B. C., Cody, L., Flett, J. A. M., Conner, T. S., Hunter, J., & Scarf, D. (2020). The development of a single item FoMO (Fear of Missing Out) scale. Current Psychology, 39(4), 1215–1220.

Roy F. Baumeister. (2012). Need-to-Belong Theory . In P. A. M. van Lange, Arie. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgin (Eds.), Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 122–140). Sage.

Rozgonjuk, D., Sindermann, C., Elhai, J. D., & Montag, C. (2021). Individual differences in Fear of Missing Out (FoMO): Age, gender, and the Big Five personality trait domains, facets, and items. Personality and Individual Differences, 171, 110546.

Savitri, J. A. (2019). Impact of fear of missing out on psychological well-being among emerging adulthood aged social media users. Psychological Research and Intervention, 2(2), 65–72.

Schafer, J., Opgen-Rhein, R., Zuber, V., Ahdesmaki, M., Silva, A. P. D. S., & Strimmer, K. (2021). corpcor: Efficient Estimation of Covariance and (Partial) Correlation.

Sette, C. P., Lima, N. R. S., Queluz, F. N. F. R., Ferrari, B. L., & Hauck, N. (2020). The Online Fear of Missing Out Inventory (ON-FoMO): Development and validation of a new tool. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 5(1), 20–29.

Shodiq, F., Kosasih, E., & Maslihah, S. (2020). Need to belong dan missing out mahasiswa pengguna media sosial instagran. Jurnal Psikologi Insight, 4(1), 53–62.

Sianipar, N. A., & Kaloeti, D. V. S. (2019). Hubungan antara regulasi diri dengan fear of missing out (FoMO) pada mahasiswa tahun pertama fakultas psikologi Universitas Diponegoro. Jurnal Empati, 8(1), 136–143.

Syahniar, S., Maysitoh, M., Ifdil, Ifdil., Ardi, Z., Yendi, F. M., Rangka, I. B., Suranata, K., & Churnia, E. (2018). Social media fear of missing out: Psychometrics evaluation based on Indonesian evidence. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1114(1).

Tresnawati, F. R. (2016). Hubungan antara the big five personality traits dengan fear of missing out about social media pada mahasiswa. INTUISI, 8(3), 179–185.

Utami, R. H., Magistarina, E., Pratama, M., & Khasanah, A. N. (2021). Between boredom and frustration: Predictor of compulsive internet use. Jurnal Neo Konseling, 3(4), 13–19.

Utz, S., Tanis, M., & Vermeulen, I. (2012). It is all about being popular: The effects of need for popularity on social network site use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(1), 37–42.

V, S., & S T, L. (2022). Fear of missing out and personality among smartphone using college students. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 16(2), 279–286.

Wegmann, E., Oberst, U., Stodt, B., & Brand, M. (2017). Online-specific fear of missing out and Internet-use expectancies contribute to symptoms of Internet-communication disorder. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 5, 33–42.

Wibaningrum, G. D., & Aurellya, C. A. (2020). Fear of missing out scale Indonesian version: An Internal Structure Analysis. JP3I (Jurnal Pengukuran Psikologi Dan Pendidikan Indonesia), 9(2), 75–82.

Wicaksono, K. S., Nuzulia, F., & Hadiyati, R. (2019). Hubungan antara harga diri dengan fear of missing out pada mahasiswa tahun pertama Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Diponegoro. Jurnal Empati, 8(2), 33–37.

Widyana, R., & Purnamasari, S. E. (2020). Do Fear of Missing-out Mediated by Social Media Addiction Influence Academic Motivation Among Emerging Adulthood? Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 9(3), 259–275.

Zanah, F. N., & Rahardjo, W. (2020). Peran kesepian dan fear of missing out terhadap kecanduan media sosial: Analisis regresi pada mahasiswa. Persona:Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 9(2), 286–301.

Zhang, Z., Jiménez, F. R., & Cicala, J. E. (2020). Fear Of Missing Out Scale: A self‐concept perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 37(11), 1619–1634.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.24036/00651kons2022

Article Metrics

Abstract View : 94 times
PDF : 70 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.